Tulokset kategoriasta yhdiste hakusanalla LSD. Takaisin
Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging (Carhart-Harris RL, Muthukumaraswamy S, Roseman L, Kaelen M, .., 2016)
|Julkaisu:||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Tiivistelmä:|| LSD:n vaikutuksia aivoissa tutkittiin kolmen aivokuvantamismenetelmän avulla. Kohderyhmänä olivat terveet koehenkilöt. Tutkimuksessa todettiin, että LSD vähentää oletushermoverkostoon luettujen aivoalueiden välistä integraatiota ja toisaalta lisää eri aivoalueiden välistä kytkeytyneisyyttä.|
Näköaivokuoren voimistunut verenkierto, näköaivokuoren vaimentuneet alfa-aallot ja primäärisen näköaivokuoren toiminnallisten yhteyksien laajeneminen korreloivat vahvasti koehenkilöiden visuaalisista hallusinaatiosta tekemien arvioiden kanssa.
Lisäksi parahippokampuksen ja retrospleniaalisen aivokuoren välisten yhteyksien vaimeneminen korreloi koehenkilöiden arvioimien egon hälvenemisen ja merkityskokemuksen muuttumisen kanssa.
Myös eri kuvantamismenetelmien välillä havaittiin merkittäviä korrelaatioita.
|Menetelmät:||Aivokuvantaminen, fMRI, MEG|
|Tagit:||aivot, default mode network, LSD, tietoisuus|
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. (Bogenschutz MP, Johnson MW, 2016)
|Julkaisu:||Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry|
|Tiivistelmä:|| Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions.|
In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD.
Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects.
Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.
The paradoxical psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (Carhart-Harris RL, Kaelen M, Bolstridge M, Williams TM, Will.., 2016)
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic hallucinogen or psychedelic that modulates consciousness in a marked and novel way. This study sought to examine the acute and mid-term psychological effects of LSD in a controlled study.
A total of 20 healthy volunteers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants received LSD (75 µg, intravenously) on one occasion and placebo (saline, intravenously) on another, in a balanced order, with at least 2 weeks separating sessions. Acute subjective effects were measured using the Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire and the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). A measure of optimism (the Revised Life Orientation Test), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Peter's Delusions Inventory were issued at baseline and 2 weeks after each session.
LSD produced robust psychological effects; including heightened mood but also high scores on the PSI, an index of psychosis-like symptoms. Increased optimism and trait openness were observed 2 weeks after LSD (and not placebo) and there were no changes in delusional thinking.
The present findings reinforce the view that psychedelics elicit psychosis-like symptoms acutely yet improve psychological wellbeing in the mid to long term. It is proposed that acute alterations in mood are secondary to a more fundamental modulation in the quality of cognition, and that increased cognitive flexibility subsequent to serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) stimulation promotes emotional lability during intoxication and leaves a residue of 'loosened cognition' in the mid to long term that is conducive to improved psychological wellbeing.
Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects. (Schmid Y, Enzler F, Gasser P, Grouzmann E, Preller KH, Volle.., 2015)
After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans.
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, LSD (200 μg) and placebo were administered to 16 healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men). Outcome measures included psychometric scales; investigator ratings; PPI of the acoustic startle response; and autonomic, endocrine, and adverse effects.
Administration of LSD to healthy subjects produced pronounced alterations in waking consciousness that lasted 12 hours. The predominant effects induced by LSD included visual hallucinations, audiovisual synesthesia, and positively experienced derealization and depersonalization phenomena. Subjective well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust were increased by LSD. Compared with placebo, LSD decreased PPI. LSD significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, plasma cortisol, prolactin, oxytocin, and epinephrine. Adverse effects produced by LSD completely subsided within 72 hours. No severe acute adverse effects were observed.
In addition to marked hallucinogenic effects, LSD exerts methylenedioxymethamphetamine-like empathogenic mood effects that may be useful in psychotherapy. LSD altered sensorimotor gating in a human model of psychosis, supporting the use of LSD in translational psychiatric research. In a controlled clinical setting, LSD can be used safely, but it produces significant sympathomimetic stimulation.
|Aihe:||haitta-arvio, yleiset vaikutukset|
|Menetelmät:||kaksoissokkoutettu, satunnaistettu, lumekontrolloitu, vaihtovuoroinen|
Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. (Gasser P, Holstein D, Michel Y, Doblin R, Yazar-Klosinski B,.., 2014)
|Julkaisu:||The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease|
|Tiivistelmä:|| A double-blind, randomized, active placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted to examine safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy in 12 patients with anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases.|
Treatment included drug-free psychotherapy sessions supplemented by two LSD-assisted psychotherapy sessions 2 to 3 weeks apart. The participants received either 200 μg of LSD (n = 8) or 20 μg of LSD with an open-label crossover to 200 μg of LSD after the initial blinded treatment was unmasked (n = 4).
At the 2-month follow-up, positive trends were found via the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in reductions in trait anxiety (p = 0.033) with an effect size of 1.1, and state anxiety was significantly reduced (p = 0.021) with an effect size of 1.2, with no acute or chronic adverse effects persisting beyond 1 day after treatment or treatment-related serious adverse events. STAI reductions were sustained for 12 months.
These results indicate that when administered safely in a methodologically rigorous medically supervised psychotherapeutic setting, LSD can reduce anxiety, suggesting that larger controlled studies are warranted.
|Aihe:||kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus|
|Menetelmät:||kaksoissokkoutettu, satunnaistettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta|
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Krebs TS, Johansen PØ, 2012)
|Julkaisu:||Journal of Psychopharmacology|
|Tiivistelmä:|| Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants.|
There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.
The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. (Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A, 2008)
|Julkaisu:||CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics|
|Tiivistelmä:|| Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so-called "experimental psychosis" by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures ("psycholytic" and "psychedelic" therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and better study oversight, scientific interest in LSD has resumed for brain research and experimental treatments.|
Due to the lack of any comprehensive review since the 1950s and the widely dispersed experimental literature, the present review focuses on all aspects of the pharmacology and psychopharmacology of LSD. A thorough search of the experimental literature regarding the pharmacology of LSD was performed and the extracted results are given in this review. (Psycho-) pharmacological research on LSD was extensive and produced nearly 10,000 scientific papers.
The pharmacology of LSD is complex and its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. LSD is physiologically well tolerated and psychological reactions can be controlled in a medically supervised setting, but complications may easily result from uncontrolled use by layman. Actually there is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill.