Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tulokset kategoriasta tagi hakusanalla psilosybiini. Takaisin

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. (Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Carducci MA, Umbricht A, Richards .., 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety.

This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study.

High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes.
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Menetelmät:vaihtovuoroinen, kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0269881116675513

Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study (Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Barbosa .., 2015)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Several lines of evidence suggest that classic (5HT2A agonist) hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects in alcohol and drug addiction. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of psilocybin in various populations, there have been no studies on the efficacy of psilocybin for alcohol dependence.

We conducted a single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data. Ten volunteers with DSM-IV alcohol dependence received orally administered psilocybin in one or two supervised sessions in addition to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and therapy sessions devoted to preparation for and debriefing from the psilocybin sessions.

Participants’ responses to psilocybin were qualitatively similar to those described in other populations. Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p < 0.05). Gains were largely maintained at follow-up to 36 weeks. The intensity of effects in the first psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5–8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5.

There were no significant treatment-related adverse events. These preliminary findings provide a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms.
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Tagit: alkoholi, pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114565144

Pilot Study of the 5-HT2AR Agonist Psilocybin in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Cosimano MP, Griffiths RR, 2014)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted.

To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol.

Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake.

Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically <35%).

Although the open-label design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Tagit: pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus, tupakka
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114548296

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study (Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Rucker J, Day CM, Erritzoe .., 2016)
Julkaisu:The Lancet Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Background

Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression.


In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797.


Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30–60 min after dosing, peaked 2–3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0–1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1 week (mean QIDS difference −11·8, 95% CI −9·15 to −14·35, p=0·002, Hedges' g=3·1) and 3 months (−9·2, 95% CI −5·69 to −12·71, p=0·003, Hedges' g=2) after high-dose treatment. Marked and sustained improvements in anxiety and anhedonia were also noted.


This study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression and motivates further trials, with more rigorous designs, to better examine the therapeutic potential of this approach.


Medical Research Council.
Aihe:masennus, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:open label, seuranta
Tagit: masennus, pilotti, psilosybiini
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221503661630065...

Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer (Grob CS, Danforth AL, Chopra GS, Hagerty M, McKay CR, Halber.., 2011)
Julkaisu:Archives of General Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Tarkoitus: Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan hallusinogeenien kliinistä soveltuvuutta ahdistuksen hoitoon, joka on syntynyt reaktiona pitkälle edenneeseen syöpään.

Koeasetelma: Psilosybiinin (0.2 mg/kg) tehoa ja turvallisuutta tutkittiin plasebokontrolloidulla kaksoissokko asetelmalla, jossa koehenkilöt toimivat omana kontrollinaan.

Koehenkilöt: 12 pitkälle edennyttä syöpää sairastavaa aikuista, joilla on myös kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta.

Käytetyt mittarit: Koehenkilöiden kehon lämpötilaa ja verenapainetta mitattiin kokeen aikana ja sitä ennen. Seurantamittaukset sisälsivät BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), POMS (Profile of Mood States) ja STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) asteikot, joihin koehenkilöt vastasivat sokkoutuksen purkamisen jälkeen kuuden kuukauden ajan.

Tulokset: Fysiologisten vasteiden ja psykologisten mittausten perusteella arvioituna hoito vaikutti turvalliselta. Psilosybiini ei aiheuttanut koehenkilöille kliinisesti merkittävää haittaa. Koehenkilöiden ahdistustaipumuksessa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää laskua 1 ja 3 kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. BDI:llä mitattuna koehenkilöiden mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää kohenemista kuusi kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. Myös POMS mittauksissa havaittiin koehenkilöiden mielialan kohenemista, joka ei kuitenkaan ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää.

Johtopäätökset: Tämä tutkimus osoitti psilosybiinin annostelun olevan turvallista ja soveltuvaa pitkälle edenneestä syövästä sairastuneilla potilailla, joilla on kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta. Osa aineistosta viittasi positiivisiin muutoksiin koehenkilöiden mielialassa ja ahdistuneisuudessa. Tulosten valossa lisätutkimus vaikuttaa perustellulta tällä pitkään sivuutetulla alalla.
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus
Menetelmät:kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
URL: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/210962

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial (Ross S, Bossis A, Guss J, Agin-Liebes G, Malone T, Cohen B, .., 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Tausta: Ahdistus ja masennusoireilu ovat yleisiä potilailla, joilla on pitkälle edennyt syöpäsairaus. Psykiatrinen oireilu on yhteydessä huonompaan hoidon ennusteeseen. Aiemmat tutkimustulokset viittaavat psilosybiinin soveltuvan syöpäsairauteen liittyvän ahdistuksen ja masennuksen hoitoon.

Metodit: Tässä satunnaistetussa plasebokontrolloidussa ristikkäistutkimuksessa 29 syöpää sairastavaa potilasta, joilla oli sairauteensa liittyvää ahdistusta ja masennusta saivat satunnaistetusti psykoterapian yhteydessä yhden annoksen joko psilosybiiniä (0.3mg/kg) tai niasiinia. Hoidon vaikuttavuutta arvioitiin ahdistus- ja masennusmittauksilla ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä 7 viikkoa hoidon jälkeen.

Tulokset: Koehenkilöiden ahdistuneisuudessa ja mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitseviä positiivisia muutoksia psilosybiinin jälkeen ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä. Lisäksi syöpään liittyvässä toivottomuudessa ja demoralisaatiossa havaittiin laskua. Myös koehenkilöiden henkinen hyvinvointi ja elämänlaatu kohenivat. Kuuden kuukauden seurannassa psilosybiinin ahdistusta ja masentuneisuutta lieventävät vaikutukset säilyivät (60-80 % koehenkilöistä havaittiin kliinisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta ahdistukseen ja masentuneisuuteen). Seurannassa psilosybiini oli yhteydessä eksistentiaalisen ahdingon helpottumiseen, kohonneeseen elämänlaatuun ja muuntuneeseen asenteeseen kuolemaa kohtaan. Psilosybiinin terapeuttiset vaikutukset välittyivät sen tuottaman mystisen kokemuksen kautta.

Johtopäätökset: Kerta-annoksinen psilosybiiniavusteinen psykoterapia tuotti nopeita ja pysyviä muutoksia syöpää sairastavien potilaiden sairauteen liittyvässä masentuneisuudessa ja ahdistuneisuudessa.
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Menetelmät:Kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, vaihtovuoroinen
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881116675512

Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review. (van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, van den Brink W, 2011)
Julkaisu:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tiivistelmä: In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms.

The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms.

In the Netherlands, the prevalence of magic mushroom use was declining since 2000 (last year prevalence of 6.3% in 2000 to 2.9% in 2005), and further declined after possession and use became illegal in December 2008. The CAM concluded that the physical and psychological dependence potential of magic mushrooms was low, that acute toxicity was moderate, chronic toxicity low and public health and criminal aspects negligible. The combined use of mushrooms and alcohol and the quality of the setting in which magic mushrooms are used deserve, however, attention.

In conclusion, the use of magic mushrooms is relatively safe as only few and relatively mild adverse effects have been reported. The low prevalent but unpredictable provocation of panic attacks and flash-backs remain, however, a point of concern.
Aihe:päihdekäyttö, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Asiantuntijalausunto, seuranta
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, psilosybiini
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256914

Psilocybin–summary of knowledge and new perspectives (Tylš F, Páleníček T, Horáček J, 2014)
Julkaisu:European Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen.

This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Tagit: farmakodynamiikka, farmakokinetiikka, psilosybiini
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444771

Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F, Vollenweider FX, 2011)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial.

We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects.

All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects.

The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.
Tagit: psilosybiini
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110382466

Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically (Gable RS, 1993)
Julkaisu:The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Tiivistelmä: A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances.

Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.
Yhdiste:päihteet yleisesti
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, päihteet, psilosybiini
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8213692

The pharmacology of psilocybin. (Passie T, Seifert J, Schneider U, Emrich HM, 2002)
Julkaisu:Addiction Biology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.
Aihe:yleiset vaikutukset
Tagit: kirjallisuuskatsaus, psilosybiini
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14578010