Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tulokset kategoriasta aihe hakusanalla Päihdekäyttö. Takaisin

Evaluating the abuse potential of psychedelic drugs as part of the safety pharmacology assessment for medical use in humans (Heal DJ, Gosden J, Smith SL, 2018)
Tiivistelmä: Psychedelics comprise drugs come from various pharmacological classes including 5-HT2A agonists, indirect 5-HT agonists, e.g., MDMA, NMDA antagonists and κ-opioid receptor agonists. There is resurgence in developing psychedelics to treat psychiatric disorders with high unmet clinical need. Many, but not all, psychedelics are schedule 1 controlled drugs (CDs), i.e., no approved medical use. For existing psychedelics in development, regulatory approval will require a move from schedule 1 to a CD schedule for drugs with medical use, i.e., schedules 2–5.

Although abuse of the psychedelics is well documented, a systematic preclinical and clinical evaluation of the risks they pose in a medical-use setting does not exist. We describe the non-clinical tests required for a regulatory evaluation of abuse/dependence risks, i.e., drug-discrimination, intravenous self-administration and physical dependence liability. A synopsis of the existing data for the various types of psychedelics is provided and we describe our findings with psychedelic drugs in these models. FDA recently issued its guidance on abuse/dependence evaluation of drug-candidates (CDER/FDA, 2017). We critically review the guidance, discuss the impact this document will have on non-clinical abuse/dependence testing, and offer advice on how non-clinical abuse/dependence experiments can be designed to meet not only the expectations of FDA, but also other regulatory agencies. Finally, we offer views on how these non-clinical tests can be refined to provide more meaningful information to aid the assessment of the risks posed by CNS drug-candidates for abuse and physical dependence.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti
Aihe:Päihdekäyttö, Psykedeeliavusteinen psykoterapia yleisesti, haitta-arvio
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00283908183005...
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Psychedelic drug use in healthy individuals: A review of benefits, costs, and implications for drug policy (Elsey JWB, 2017)
Julkaisu:Drug Science, Policy and Law
Tiivistelmä: The potential of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of mental health problems is increasingly being recognized. However, relatively little thrust has been given to the suggestion that individuals without any mental health problems may benefit from using psychedelic drugs, and that they may have a right to do so.

This review considers contemporary research into the use of psychedelic drugs in healthy individuals, including neurobiological and subjective effects.

In line with findings suggesting positive effects in the treatment of mental health problems, such research highlights the potential of psychedelic drugs for the enhancement of wellbeing even in healthy individuals. The relatively low risk associated with usage does not appear to align with stringent drug laws that impose heavy penalties for their use. Some policy implications, and suggestions for future research, are considered.
Yhdiste:psykedeelit yleisesti
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, hyödyllisyysarvio, itselääkintä, päihdepolitiikka
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050324517723232
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Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study (Krebs TS & Johansen PØ, 2013)
Julkaisu:PLoS One
Tiivistelmä: BACKGROUND:
The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.

To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.

Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.

21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.

We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Yhdiste:psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini
Aihe:päihdekäyttö, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2001-2004
Tagit: mielenterveys, psykedeelit
URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone....
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Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review. (van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, van den Brink W, 2011)
Julkaisu:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tiivistelmä: In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms.

The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms.

In the Netherlands, the prevalence of magic mushroom use was declining since 2000 (last year prevalence of 6.3% in 2000 to 2.9% in 2005), and further declined after possession and use became illegal in December 2008. The CAM concluded that the physical and psychological dependence potential of magic mushrooms was low, that acute toxicity was moderate, chronic toxicity low and public health and criminal aspects negligible. The combined use of mushrooms and alcohol and the quality of the setting in which magic mushrooms are used deserve, however, attention.

In conclusion, the use of magic mushrooms is relatively safe as only few and relatively mild adverse effects have been reported. The low prevalent but unpredictable provocation of panic attacks and flash-backs remain, however, a point of concern.
Aihe:päihdekäyttö, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Asiantuntijalausunto, seuranta
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, psilosybiini
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256914
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A review of the acute subjective effects of MDMA/ecstasy. (Baylen CA, Rosenberg H, 2006)
Tiivistelmä: AIM:
Although several relatively recent reviews have summarized the neuropsychiatric effects associated with chronic ecstasy use, there is no published comprehensive review of studies on the acute subjective effects (ASEs) of MDMA/ecstasy.

The present study reviewed the prevalence, intensity and duration of ASEs collected from 24 studies that provided frequency data on the prevalence of self-reported ecstasy effects and/or provided data on the intensity of ecstasy effects.

Although hundreds of ASEs have been reported following MDMA consumption, we identified a subset of effects reported repeatedly by meaningful proportions and large numbers of participants across multiple investigations, most of which were either emotional (e.g. anxiety, depression, closeness, fear, euphoria, calmness) or somatic (e.g. nausea/vomiting, bruxism, muscle aches/headache, sweating, numbness, body temperature changes, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, increased energy). Only one sexual ASE (sexual arousal/increased sensual awareness), one cognitive ASE (confused thought), one sensory-perceptual ASE (visual effects/changes in visual perception), one sleep-related ASE (sleeplessness) and one appetite-related ASE (decreased appetite) were reported across five or more investigations. Three factors-number of hours between ingestion and assessment, dose level, and gender-have been associated with the acute subjective experience of MDMA/ecstasy.

This review provides useful information for clinicians and researchers who want to understand the desirable and undesirable ASEs that may motivate and restrain ecstasy use, for public health advocates who seek to reduce biomedical harms (e.g. fainting, dehydration, shortness of breath, bruxism) associated with recreational use of MDMA/ecstasy, and for educators who wish to design credible prevention messages that neither underestimate nor exaggerate users' experiences of this drug.
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, päihdekäyttö
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006....
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