Tutkimus

Tulokset kategoriasta indikaatio hakusanalla terveet. Takaisin


Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects (Vizeli, P. & Liechti, M. E., 2017)
Tiivistelmä: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is being investigated in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The present study characterized the safety pharmacology of single-dose administrations of MDMA (75 or 125 mg) using data from nine double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies performed in the same laboratory in a total of 166 healthy subjects. The duration of the subjective effects was 4.2 ± 1.3 h (range: 1.4–8.2 h). The 125 mg dose of MDMA produced greater ‘good drug effect’ ratings than 75 mg. MDMA produced moderate and transient ‘bad drug effect’ ratings, which were greater in women than in men. MDMA increased systolic blood pressure to >160 mmHg, heart rate >100 beats/min, and body temperature >38°C in 33%, 29% and 19% of the subjects, respectively. These proportions of subjects with hypertension (>160 mmHg), tachycardia, and body temperature >38°C were all significantly greater after 125 mg MDMA compared with the 75 mg dose. Acute and subacute adverse effects of MDMA as assessed by the List of Complaints were dose-dependent and more frequent in females. MDMA did not affect liver or kidney function at EOS 29 ± 22 days after use. No serious adverse events occurred. In conclusion, MDMA produced predominantly acute positive subjective drug effects. Bad subjective drug effects and other adverse effects were significantly more common in women. MDMA administration was overall safe in physically and psychiatrically healthy subjects and in a medical setting. However, the risks of MDMA are likely higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and remain to be investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders.
Substanssi:MDMA
Indikaatio:terveet koehenkilöt, turvallisuus
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Metodologia:meta-analyysi
Otoskoko:166
Muuta:
DOI:10.1177/0269881117691569
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881117691569
Tagit: MDMA, turvallisuus


Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging (Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Suresh Muthukumaraswamy, Leor Rosem.., 2016)
Tiivistelmä: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.
Substanssi:LSD
Indikaatio:terveet koehenkilöt
Julkaisu:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Metodologia:aivokuvantaminen, fMRI, MEG
Otoskoko:20
Muuta:
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1518377113
URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/113/17/4853.full
Tagit: aivot, default mode network, LSD, tietoisuus