Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tulokset kategoriasta yhdiste hakusanalla Psilosybiini. Takaisin


Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up. (Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Day CMJ, Rucker J, Watts R,.., 2018)
Julkaisu:Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: RATIONALE:
Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy.

OBJECTIVES:
Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression.

METHODS:
Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. Depressive symptoms were assessed from 1 week to 6 months post-treatment, with the self-rated QIDS-SR16 as the primary outcome measure.

RESULTS:
Treatment was generally well tolerated. Relative to baseline, marked reductions in depressive symptoms were observed for the first 5 weeks post-treatment (Cohen's d = 2.2 at week 1 and 2.3 at week 5, both p < 0.001); nine and four patients met the criteria for response and remission at week 5. Results remained positive at 3 and 6 months (Cohen's d = 1.5 and 1.4, respectively, both p < 0.001). No patients sought conventional antidepressant treatment within 5 weeks of psilocybin. Reductions in depressive symptoms at 5 weeks were predicted by the quality of the acute psychedelic experience.

CONCLUSIONS:
Although limited conclusions can be drawn about treatment efficacy from open-label trials, tolerability was good, effect sizes large and symptom improvements appeared rapidly after just two psilocybin treatment sessions and remained significant 6 months post-treatment in a treatment-resistant cohort. Psilocybin represents a promising paradigm for unresponsive depression that warrants further research in double-blind randomised control trials.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Masennus
Menetelmät:open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:20
Muuta:Seurantatutkimus tutkimuksesta Carhart-Harris ym. (2016).
Tagit:
DOI:10.1007/s00213-017-4771-x
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813086/


Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression. (Roseman L, Nutt DJ, Carhart-Harris RL, 2018)
Julkaisu:Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Introduction: It is a basic principle of the "psychedelic" treatment model that the quality of the acute experience mediates long-term improvements in mental health. In the present paper we sought to test this using data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In line with previous reports, we hypothesized that the occurrence and magnitude of Oceanic Boundlessness (OBN) (sharing features with mystical-type experience) and Dread of Ego Dissolution (DED) (similar to anxiety) would predict long-term positive outcomes, whereas sensory perceptual effects would have negligible predictive value.

Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with treatment resistant depression underwent treatment with psilocybin (two separate sessions: 10 and 25 mg psilocybin). The Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) questionnaire was used to assess the quality of experiences in the 25 mg psilocybin session. From the ASC, the dimensions OBN and DED were used to measure the mystical-type and challenging experiences, respectively. The Self-Reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR) at 5 weeks served as the endpoint clinical outcome measure, as in later time points some of the subjects had gone on to receive new treatments, thus confounding inferences. In a repeated measure ANOVA, Time was the within-subject factor (independent variable), with QIDS-SR as the within-subject dependent variable in baseline, 1-day, 1-week, 5-weeks. OBN and DED were independent variables. OBN-by-Time and DED-by-Time interactions were the primary outcomes of interest.

Results: For the interaction of OBN and DED with Time (QIDS-SR as dependent variable), the main effect and the effects at each time point compared to baseline were all significant (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively, for main effects), confirming our main hypothesis. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation of OBN with QIDS-SR (5 weeks) was specific compared to perceptual dimensions of the ASC (p < 0.05).

Discussion: This report further bolsters the view that the quality of the acute psychedelic experience is a key mediator of long-term changes in mental health. Future therapeutic work with psychedelics should recognize the essential importance of quality of experience in determining treatment efficacy and consider ways of enhancing mystical-type experiences and reducing anxiety.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, masennus
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta, haastattelu, kysely
Otoskoko:20
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.3389/fphar.2017.00974
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776504/


Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms. (Carhart-Harris RL, Roseman L, Bolstridge M, Demetriou L, Pan.., 2017)
Julkaisu:Scientific Reports
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin with psychological support is showing promise as a treatment model in psychiatry but its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after treatment with psilocybin (serotonin agonist) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD).

Quality pre and post treatment fMRI data were collected from 16 of 19 patients. Decreased depressive symptoms were observed in all 19 patients at 1-week post-treatment and 47% met criteria for response at 5 weeks. Whole-brain analyses revealed post-treatment decreases in CBF in the temporal cortex, including the amygdala. Decreased amygdala CBF correlated with reduced depressive symptoms. Focusing on a priori selected circuitry for RSFC analyses, increased RSFC was observed within the default-mode network (DMN) post-treatment. Increased ventromedial prefrontal cortex-bilateral inferior lateral parietal cortex RSFC was predictive of treatment response at 5-weeks, as was decreased parahippocampal-prefrontal cortex RSFC.

These data fill an important knowledge gap regarding the post-treatment brain effects of psilocybin, and are the first in depressed patients. The post-treatment brain changes are different to previously observed acute effects of psilocybin and other 'psychedelics' yet were related to clinical outcomes. A 'reset' therapeutic mechanism is proposed.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, aivotutkimus
Menetelmät:fMRI
Otoskoko:16
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5640601/


Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation. (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Griffiths RR, 2017)
Julkaisu:The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Tiivistelmä: BACKGROUND:
A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone.

OBJECTIVES:
To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration.

METHODS:
The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin.

RESULTS:
All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives.

CONCLUSION:
These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:Seurantatutkimus tutkimuksesta Johnson ym. 2014
Tagit:
DOI:10.3109/00952990.2016.1170135
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5641975/


An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated with naturalistic psychedelic use. (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Johnson PS, Griffiths RR, 2017)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence.

This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience. Of the 358 participants, 38% reported continuous smoking cessation after psychedelic use (quitters).

Among quitters, 74% reported >2 years' abstinence. Of the 358 participants, 28% reported a persisting reduction in smoking (reducers), from a mode of 300 cigarettes/month before, to a mode of 1 cigarette/month after the experience. Among reducers, 62% reported >2 years of reduced smoking. Finally, 34% of the 358 participants (relapsers) reported a temporary smoking reduction before returning to baseline smoking levels, with a mode time range to relapse of 3-6 months.

Relapsers rated their psychedelic experience significantly lower in personal meaning and spiritual significance than both other groups. Participants across all groups reported less severe affective withdrawal symptoms (e.g. depression, craving) after psychedelic use compared with previous quit attempts, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for psychedelic-associated smoking cessation/reduction.

Changes in life priorities/values were endorsed as the most important psychological factor associated with smoking cessation/reduction. Results suggest psychedelics may hold promise in treating tobacco addiction as potentially mediated by spiritual experience, changed priorities/values, and improved emotional regulation.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Kyselytutkimus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881116684335
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881116684335


Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. (Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Carducci MA, Umbricht A, Richards .., 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety.

This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study.

High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Menetelmät:vaihtovuoroinen, kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:56
Muuta:
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1177/0269881116675513
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0269881116675513


Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study (Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Rucker J, Day CM, Erritzoe .., 2016)
Julkaisu:The Lancet Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Background

Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression.

Methods

In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797.

Findings

Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30–60 min after dosing, peaked 2–3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0–1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1 week (mean QIDS difference −11·8, 95% CI −9·15 to −14·35, p=0·002, Hedges' g=3·1) and 3 months (−9·2, 95% CI −5·69 to −12·71, p=0·003, Hedges' g=2) after high-dose treatment. Marked and sustained improvements in anxiety and anhedonia were also noted.

Interpretation

This study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression and motivates further trials, with more rigorous designs, to better examine the therapeutic potential of this approach.

Funding

Medical Research Council.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:masennus, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:12
Muuta:
Tagit: masennus, pilotti, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30065-7
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221503661630065...


Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial (Ross S, Bossis A, Guss J, Agin-Liebes G, Malone T, Cohen B, .., 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Tausta: Ahdistus ja masennusoireilu ovat yleisiä potilailla, joilla on pitkälle edennyt syöpäsairaus. Psykiatrinen oireilu on yhteydessä huonompaan hoidon ennusteeseen. Aiemmat tutkimustulokset viittaavat psilosybiinin soveltuvan syöpäsairauteen liittyvän ahdistuksen ja masennuksen hoitoon.

Metodit: Tässä satunnaistetussa plasebokontrolloidussa ristikkäistutkimuksessa 29 syöpää sairastavaa potilasta, joilla oli sairauteensa liittyvää ahdistusta ja masennusta saivat satunnaistetusti psykoterapian yhteydessä yhden annoksen joko psilosybiiniä (0.3mg/kg) tai niasiinia. Hoidon vaikuttavuutta arvioitiin ahdistus- ja masennusmittauksilla ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä 7 viikkoa hoidon jälkeen.

Tulokset: Koehenkilöiden ahdistuneisuudessa ja mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitseviä positiivisia muutoksia psilosybiinin jälkeen ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä. Lisäksi syöpään liittyvässä toivottomuudessa ja demoralisaatiossa havaittiin laskua. Myös koehenkilöiden henkinen hyvinvointi ja elämänlaatu kohenivat. Kuuden kuukauden seurannassa psilosybiinin ahdistusta ja masentuneisuutta lieventävät vaikutukset säilyivät (60-80 % koehenkilöistä havaittiin kliinisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta ahdistukseen ja masentuneisuuteen). Seurannassa psilosybiini oli yhteydessä eksistentiaalisen ahdingon helpottumiseen, kohonneeseen elämänlaatuun ja muuntuneeseen asenteeseen kuolemaa kohtaan. Psilosybiinin terapeuttiset vaikutukset välittyivät sen tuottaman mystisen kokemuksen kautta.

Johtopäätökset: Kerta-annoksinen psilosybiiniavusteinen psykoterapia tuotti nopeita ja pysyviä muutoksia syöpää sairastavien potilaiden sairauteen liittyvässä masentuneisuudessa ja ahdistuneisuudessa.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Menetelmät:Kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, vaihtovuoroinen
Otoskoko:29
Muuta:
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1177/0269881116675512
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881116675512


Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study (Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Barbosa .., 2015)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Several lines of evidence suggest that classic (5HT2A agonist) hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects in alcohol and drug addiction. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of psilocybin in various populations, there have been no studies on the efficacy of psilocybin for alcohol dependence.

We conducted a single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data. Ten volunteers with DSM-IV alcohol dependence received orally administered psilocybin in one or two supervised sessions in addition to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and therapy sessions devoted to preparation for and debriefing from the psilocybin sessions.

Participants’ responses to psilocybin were qualitatively similar to those described in other populations. Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p < 0.05). Gains were largely maintained at follow-up to 36 weeks. The intensity of effects in the first psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5–8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5.

There were no significant treatment-related adverse events. These preliminary findings provide a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:10
Muuta:
Tagit: alkoholi, pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus
DOI:10.1177/0269881114565144
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114565144


Pilot Study of the 5-HT2AR Agonist Psilocybin in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Cosimano MP, Griffiths RR, 2014)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted.

To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol.

Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake.

Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically <35%).

Although the open-label design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:
Tagit: pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus, tupakka
DOI:10.1177/0269881114548296
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114548296


Psilocybin–summary of knowledge and new perspectives (Tylš F, Páleníček T, Horáček J, 2014)
Julkaisu:European Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen.

This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: farmakodynamiikka, farmakokinetiikka, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444771


Psilocybin - summary of knowledge and new perspectives. (Tylš F, Páleníček T, Horáček J, 2014)
Julkaisu:European Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen.

This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006
URL: https://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977...


Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. (Garcia-Romeu A, Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, 2014)
Julkaisu:Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation.

Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Participants who were abstinent at 6 months (n=12) were compared to participants still smoking at 6 months (n=3) on measures of subjective effects of psilocybin. Abstainers scored significantly higher on a measure of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience. No significant differences in general intensity of drug effects were found between groups, suggesting that mystical-type subjective effects, rather than overall intensity of drug effects, were responsible for smoking cessation. Nine of 15 participants (60%) met criteria for "complete" mystical experience. Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions.

These results suggest a mediating role of mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:Jatkotutkimus tutkimuksesta Johnson ym. 2014
Tagit:
DOI:-
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342293/


Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer (Grob CS, Danforth AL, Chopra GS, Hagerty M, McKay CR, Halber.., 2011)
Julkaisu:Archives of General Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Tarkoitus: Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan hallusinogeenien kliinistä soveltuvuutta ahdistuksen hoitoon, joka on syntynyt reaktiona pitkälle edenneeseen syöpään.

Koeasetelma: Psilosybiinin (0.2 mg/kg) tehoa ja turvallisuutta tutkittiin plasebokontrolloidulla kaksoissokko asetelmalla, jossa koehenkilöt toimivat omana kontrollinaan.

Koehenkilöt: 12 pitkälle edennyttä syöpää sairastavaa aikuista, joilla on myös kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta.

Käytetyt mittarit: Koehenkilöiden kehon lämpötilaa ja verenapainetta mitattiin kokeen aikana ja sitä ennen. Seurantamittaukset sisälsivät BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), POMS (Profile of Mood States) ja STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) asteikot, joihin koehenkilöt vastasivat sokkoutuksen purkamisen jälkeen kuuden kuukauden ajan.

Tulokset: Fysiologisten vasteiden ja psykologisten mittausten perusteella arvioituna hoito vaikutti turvalliselta. Psilosybiini ei aiheuttanut koehenkilöille kliinisesti merkittävää haittaa. Koehenkilöiden ahdistustaipumuksessa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää laskua 1 ja 3 kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. BDI:llä mitattuna koehenkilöiden mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää kohenemista kuusi kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. Myös POMS mittauksissa havaittiin koehenkilöiden mielialan kohenemista, joka ei kuitenkaan ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää.

Johtopäätökset: Tämä tutkimus osoitti psilosybiinin annostelun olevan turvallista ja soveltuvaa pitkälle edenneestä syövästä sairastuneilla potilailla, joilla on kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta. Osa aineistosta viittasi positiivisiin muutoksiin koehenkilöiden mielialassa ja ahdistuneisuudessa. Tulosten valossa lisätutkimus vaikuttaa perustellulta tällä pitkään sivuutetulla alalla.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus
Menetelmät:kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:12
Muuta:
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.116
URL: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/210962


Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review. (van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, van den Brink W, 2011)
Julkaisu:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tiivistelmä: In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms.

The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms.

In the Netherlands, the prevalence of magic mushroom use was declining since 2000 (last year prevalence of 6.3% in 2000 to 2.9% in 2005), and further declined after possession and use became illegal in December 2008. The CAM concluded that the physical and psychological dependence potential of magic mushrooms was low, that acute toxicity was moderate, chronic toxicity low and public health and criminal aspects negligible. The combined use of mushrooms and alcohol and the quality of the setting in which magic mushrooms are used deserve, however, attention.

In conclusion, the use of magic mushrooms is relatively safe as only few and relatively mild adverse effects have been reported. The low prevalent but unpredictable provocation of panic attacks and flash-backs remain, however, a point of concern.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:päihdekäyttö, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Asiantuntijalausunto, seuranta
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.01.006
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256914


Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F, Vollenweider FX, 2011)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial.

We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects.

All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects.

The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:110
Muuta:
Tagit: psilosybiini
DOI:10.1177/0269881110382466
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110382466


Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects. (Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Richards WA, Richards BD, McCann U.., 2011)
Julkaisu:Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: RATIONALE:
This dose-effect study extends previous observations showing that psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior.

OBJECTIVES:
This double-blind study evaluated psilocybin (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg, p.o.) administered under supportive conditions.

METHODS:
Participants were 18 adults (17 hallucinogen-naïve). Five 8-h sessions were conducted individually for each participant at 1-month intervals. Participants were randomized to receive the four active doses in either ascending or descending order (nine participants each). Placebo was scheduled quasi-randomly. During sessions, volunteers used eyeshades and were instructed to direct their attention inward. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing effects immediately after and 1 month after each session, and at 14 months follow-up.

RESULTS:
Psilocybin produced acute perceptual and subjective effects including, at 20 and/or 30 mg/70 kg, extreme anxiety/fear (39% of volunteers) and/or mystical-type experience (72% of volunteers). One month after sessions at the two highest doses, volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal and spiritual significance, and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes, mood, and behavior, with the ascending dose sequence showing greater positive effects. At 14 months, ratings were undiminished and were consistent with changes rated by community observers. Both the acute and persisting effects of psilocybin were generally a monotonically increasing function of dose, with the lowest dose showing significant effects.

CONCLUSIONS:
Under supportive conditions, 20 and 30 mg/70 kg psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior. Implications for therapeutic trials are discussed.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:18
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1007/s00213-011-2358-5
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308357/


Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. (MacLean KA, Johnson MW, Griffiths RR, 2011)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event.

Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.

Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session.

The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus, kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881111420188
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537171/


Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. (Griffiths R, Richards W, Johnson M, McCann U, Jesse R, 2008)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however, little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose.

This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/ spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70 kg) administered on the other session(s).

During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated that the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a 'complete' mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening.

When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:36
Muuta:Seurantatutkimus tutkimuksesta Griffiths ym. (2006).
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881108094300
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050654/


Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. (Griffiths RR, Richards WA, McCann U, Jesse R, 2006)
Julkaisu:Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: RATIONALE:
Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects.

OBJECTIVES:
This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers' behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer's attitudes and behavior.

RESULTS:
Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers.

CONCLUSIONS:
When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:30
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-006-0457-5


The pharmacology of psilocybin. (Passie T, Seifert J, Schneider U, Emrich HM, 2002)
Julkaisu:Addiction Biology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: kirjallisuuskatsaus, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1080/1355621021000005937
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14578010