Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tulokset kategoriasta menetelmat hakusanalla Kirjallisuuskatsaus. Takaisin


Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review. (Reiche S, Hermle L, Gutwinski S, Jungaberle H, Gasser P, Maj.., 2018)
Julkaisu:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s.

Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time.

A systematic search for clinical trials from 1960 to 2017 revealed 11 eligible clinical trials involving a total number of N=445 participants, of which 7 trials investigated the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (N=323), 3 trials investigated the use of psilocybin (N=92), and one trial investigated the use of dipropyltryptamine (DPT) (N=30). The 4 more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (N=104) showed a significantly higher methodological quality than studies carried out in the 1960s and 1970s.

Evidence supports that patients with life threatening diseases associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety benefit from the anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of serotonergic hallucinogens. Some studies anecdotally reported improvements in patients´ quality of life and reduced fear of death.

Moreover, low rates of side effects were reported in studies that adhered to safety guidelines. Further studies are needed to determine how these results can be transferred into clinical practice.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini
Aihe:Kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.09.012
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S02785846173063...


Psychedelic drug use in healthy individuals: A review of benefits, costs, and implications for drug policy (Elsey JWB, 2017)
Julkaisu:Drug Science, Policy and Law
Tiivistelmä: The potential of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of mental health problems is increasingly being recognized. However, relatively little thrust has been given to the suggestion that individuals without any mental health problems may benefit from using psychedelic drugs, and that they may have a right to do so.

This review considers contemporary research into the use of psychedelic drugs in healthy individuals, including neurobiological and subjective effects.

In line with findings suggesting positive effects in the treatment of mental health problems, such research highlights the potential of psychedelic drugs for the enhancement of wellbeing even in healthy individuals. The relatively low risk associated with usage does not appear to align with stringent drug laws that impose heavy penalties for their use. Some policy implications, and suggestions for future research, are considered.
Yhdiste:psykedeelit yleisesti
Aihe:päihdekäyttö
Menetelmät:kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, hyödyllisyysarvio, itselääkintä, päihdepolitiikka
DOI:10.1177/2050324517723232
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050324517723232


Studies with psychedelic drugs in human volunteers. (Sellers EM, Romach MK, Leiderman DB, 2017)
Julkaisu:Neuropharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Scientific curiosity and fascination have played a key role in human research with psychedelics along with the hope that perceptual alterations and heightened insight could benefit well-being and play a role in the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. These motivations need to be tempered by a realistic assessment of the hurdles to be cleared for therapeutic use. Development of a psychedelic drug for treatment of a serious psychiatric disorder presents substantial although not insurmountable challenges. While the varied psychedelic agents described in this chapter share some properties, they have a range of pharmacologic effects that are reflected in the gradation in intensity of hallucinogenic effects from the classical agents to DMT, MDMA, ketamine, dextromethorphan and new drugs with activity in the serotonergic system. The common link seems to be serotonergic effects modulated by NMDA and other neurotransmitter effects. The range of hallucinogens suggest that they are distinct pharmacologic agents and will not be equally safe or effective in therapeutic targets. Newly synthesized specific and selective agents modeled on the legacy agents may be worth considering. Defining therapeutic targets that represent unmet medical need, addressing market and commercial issues, and finding treatment settings to safely test and use such drugs make the human testing of psychedelics not only interesting but also very challenging.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini, MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.029
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00283908173054...


Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. (Bogenschutz MP, Johnson MW, 2016)
Julkaisu:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions.

In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD.

Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects.

Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.
Yhdiste:LSD
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: alkoholismi, LSD
DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.03.002
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S02785846150005...


Psychedelics. (Nichols DE, 2016)
Julkaisu:Pharmacological Reviews
Tiivistelmä: Psychedelics (serotonergic hallucinogens) are powerful psychoactive substances that alter perception and mood and affect numerous cognitive processes. They are generally considered physiologically safe and do not lead to dependence or addiction. Their origin predates written history, and they were employed by early cultures in many sociocultural and ritual contexts

After the virtually contemporaneous discovery of (5R,8R)-(+)-lysergic acid-N,N-diethylamide (LSD)-25 and the identification of serotonin in the brain, early research focused intensively on the possibility that LSD and other psychedelics had a serotonergic basis for their action.

Today there is a consensus that psychedelics are agonists or partial agonists at brain serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors, with particular importance on those expressed on apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells in layer V. Several useful rodent models have been developed over the years to help unravel the neurochemical correlates of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor activation in the brain, and a variety of imaging techniques have been employed to identify key brain areas that are directly affected by psychedelics.

Recent and exciting developments in the field have occurred in clinical research, where several double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 studies of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in patients with cancer-related psychosocial distress have demonstrated unprecedented positive relief of anxiety and depression. Two small pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy also have shown positive benefit in treating both alcohol and nicotine addiction. Recently, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography have been employed for in vivo brain imaging in humans after administration of a psychedelic, and results indicate that intravenously administered psilocybin and LSD produce decreases in oscillatory power in areas of the brain's default mode network.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1124/pr.115.011478
URL: http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/68/2/264.long


The Challenging Experience Questionnaire: Characterization of challenging experiences with psilocybin mushrooms. (Barrett FS, Bradstreet MP, Leoutsakos JS, Johnson MW, Griffi.., 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms.

Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire.

The stand-alone Challenging Experience Questionnaire was then validated in a separate sample. Seven Challenging Experience Questionnaire factors (grief, fear, death, insanity, isolation, physical distress, and paranoia) provide a phenomenological profile of challenging aspects of experiences with psilocybin. Factor scores were associated with difficulty, meaningfulness, spiritual significance, and change in well-being attributed to the challenging experiences. The factor structure did not differ based on gender or prior struggle with anxiety or depression.

The Challenging Experience Questionnaire provides a basis for future investigation of predictors and outcomes of challenging experiences with classic hallucinogens.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kyselytutkimus, kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881116678781
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881116678781


Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects of ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a systematic review of clinical trials published in the last 25 years. (Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Riba J, Zuardi AW, Hal.., 2016)
Julkaisu:Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: To date, pharmacological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and for drug dependence show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients suffering severe and persistent symptoms. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties.

Thus, we conducted a systematic review of clinical trials published from 1990 until 2015, assessing these therapeutic properties. Electronic searches were performed using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Only clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Of these, 151 studies were identified, of which six met the established criteria.

Reviewed studies suggest beneficial effects for treatment-resistant depression, anxiety and depression associated with life-threatening diseases, and tobacco and alcohol dependence. All drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, ayahuasca, psilocybin and LSD may be useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of drug dependence, and anxiety and mood disorders, especially in treatment-resistant patients. These drugs may also be useful pharmacological tools to understand psychiatric disorders and to develop new therapeutic agents.

However, all studies reviewed had small sample sizes, and half of them were open-label, proof-of-concept studies. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with more patients are needed to replicate these preliminary findings.
Yhdiste:LSD, psilosybiini, ayahuasca
Aihe:Masennus, addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/2045125316638008
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910400/


MDMA-assisted therapy: A new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults. (Danforth AL, Struble CM, Yazar-Klosinski B, Grob CS, 2016)
Julkaisu:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: The first study of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of social anxiety in autistic adults commenced in the spring of 2014. The search for psychotherapeutic options for autistic individuals is imperative considering the lack of effective conventional treatments for mental health diagnoses that are common in this population.

Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) involving the administration of MDMA in clinical trials have been rare and non-life threatening. To date, MDMA has been administered to over 1133 individuals for research purposes without the occurrence of unexpected drug-related SAEs that require expedited reporting per FDA regulations.

Now that safety parameters for limited use of MDMA in clinical settings have been established, a case can be made to further develop MDMA-assisted therapeutic interventions that could support autistic adults in increasing social adaptability among the typically developing population.

As in the case with classic hallucinogens and other psychedelic drugs, MDMA catalyzes shifts toward openness and introspection that do not require ongoing administration to achieve lasting benefits. This infrequent dosing mitigates adverse event frequency and improves the risk/benefit ratio of MDMA, which may provide a significant advantage over medications that require daily dosing. Consequently, clinicians could employ new treatment models for social anxiety or similar types of distress administering MDMA on one to several occasions within the context of a supportive and integrative psychotherapy protocol.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia, haitta-arvio, autismi
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.03.011
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S02785846150006...


Classical hallucinogens and neuroimaging: A systematic review of human studies: Hallucinogens and neuroimaging. (Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JAS, Hallak JEC, 2016)
Julkaisu:Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews
Tiivistelmä: Serotonergic hallucinogens produce alterations of perceptions, mood, and cognition, and have anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiaddictive properties. These drugs act as agonists of frontocortical 5-HT2A receptors, but the neural basis of their effects are not well understood. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies analyzing the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens in man.

Studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases until 12 April 2016 were included using the following keywords: "ayahuasca", "DMT", "psilocybin", "LSD", "mescaline" crossed one by one with the terms "mri", "fmri", "pet", "spect", "imaging" and "neuroimaging". Of 279 studies identified, 25 were included.

Acute effects included excitation of frontolateral/frontomedial cortex, medial temporal lobe, and occipital cortex, and inhibition of the default mode network. Long-term use was associated with thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, thickening of the anterior cingulate cortex, and decreased neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding.

Despite the high methodological heterogeneity and the small sample sizes, the results suggest that hallucinogens increase introspection and positive mood by modulating brain activity in the fronto-temporo-parieto-occipital cortex.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, ayahuasca, psilosybiini, LSD
Aihe:Aivotutkimus, yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.10.026
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S01497634163023...


The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. (Dos Santos RG, Balthazar FM, Bouso JC, Hallak JE, 2016)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: RATIONALE:
In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity.

OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

METHODS:
Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection.

RESULTS:
The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity.

CONCLUSIONS:
Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations.
Yhdiste:Ayahuasca
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, aivotutkimus, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881116652578
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881116652578


Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies.logical functioning, and neuroimaging. (Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, 2016)
Julkaisu:Revista brasileira de psiquiatria
Tiivistelmä: OBJECTIVE:
To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline).

METHODS:
Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection.

RESULTS:
Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression.

CONCLUSION:
Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.
Yhdiste:Ayahuasca
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, masennus
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2015-1701
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-4446...


European rating of drug harms. (van Amsterdam J, Nutt D, Phillips L, van den Brink W, 2015)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: BACKGROUND:
The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms.

METHODS:
Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed criteria weights that would apply, on average, across the EU. Weighted averages of the scores provided a single, overall weighted harm score (range: 0-100) for each drug.

RESULTS:
Alcohol, heroin and crack emerged as the most harmful drugs (overall weighted harm score 72, 55 and 50, respectively). The remaining drugs had an overall weighted harm score of 38 or less, making them much less harmful than alcohol. The overall weighted harm scores of the EU experts correlated well with those previously given by the UK panel.

CONCLUSION:
The outcome of this study shows that the previous national rankings based on the relative harms of different drugs are endorsed throughout the EU. The results indicates that EU and national drug policy measures should focus on drugs with the highest overall harm, including alcohol and tobacco, whereas drugs such as cannabis and ecstasy should be given lower priority including a lower legal classification.
Yhdiste:päihteet yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini, MDMA
Aihe:haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus, asiantuntijalausunto
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: alkoholi, haitallisuusarvio, päihteet, tupakka
DOI:10.1177/0269881115581980
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881115581980


The Psychopharmacology of ±3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Role in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (Amoroso T, 2015)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Tiivistelmä: Prior to 1985, ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was readily used as a psychotherapeutic adjunct. As MDMA became popular in treating various psychiatric illnesses by mental health professionals, the public started to abuse the MDMA-containing recreational drug "ecstasy." This alarmed the DEA, which led to emergency scheduling of MDMA as a Schedule I drug. Due to its scheduling in 1985, human research and clinical use has been limited.

The majority of research on MDMA has been focused on the drug's potential harmful effects rather than its possible therapeutic effects. The limitations on retrospective human studies and preclinical animal models of MDMA neurotoxicity are examined in this analysis. New research has shown that MDMA, used as a catalyst in psychotherapy, is effective in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

This review also examines the psychopharmacological basis for the efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Specifically, the brain regions involved with both PTSD and those activated by MDMA (i.e., amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus) are examined. Also, the possible neurochemical mechanisms involved in MDMA's efficacy in treating PTSD are reviewed.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia, stressihäiriö
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1094156
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579955


Psilocybin–summary of knowledge and new perspectives (Tylš F, Páleníček T, Horáček J, 2014)
Julkaisu:European Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen.

This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: farmakodynamiikka, farmakokinetiikka, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444771


Psilocybin - summary of knowledge and new perspectives. (Tylš F, Páleníček T, Horáček J, 2014)
Julkaisu:European Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen.

This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006
URL: https://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977...


The potential dangers of using MDMA for psychotherapy. (Parrott AC, 2014)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Tiivistelmä: MDMA has properties that may make it attractive for psychotherapy, although many of its effects are potentially problematic. These contrasting effects will be critically reviewed in order to assess whether MDMA could be safe for clinical usage. Early studies from the 1980s noted that MDMA was an entactogen, engendering feelings of love and warmth. However, negative experiences can also occur with MDMA since it is not selective in the thoughts or emotions it releases. This unpredictability in the psychological material released is similar to another serotonergic drug, LSD. Acute MDMA has powerful neurohormonal effects, increasing cortisol, oxytocin, testosterone, and other hormone levels. The release of oxytocin may facilitate psychotherapy, whereas cortisol may increase stress and be counterproductive. MDMA administration is followed by a period of neurochemical recovery, when low serotonin levels are often accompanied by lethargy and depression. Regular usage can also lead to serotonergic neurotoxicity, memory problems, and other psychobiological problems. Proponents of MDMA-assisted therapy state that it should only be used for reactive disorders (such as PTSD) since it can exacerbate distress in those with a prior psychiatric history. Overall, many issues need to be considered when debating the relative benefits and dangers of using MDMA for psychotherapy.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus, asiantuntijalausunto
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1080/02791072.2014.873690
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24830184


Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Krebs TS, Johansen PØ, 2012)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants.

There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.
Yhdiste:LSD
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881112439253
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0048020/


Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F, Vollenweider FX, 2011)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial.

We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects.

All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects.

The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:110
Muuta:
Tagit: psilosybiini
DOI:10.1177/0269881110382466
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110382466


Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. (MacLean KA, Johnson MW, Griffiths RR, 2011)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event.

Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.

Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session.

The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus, kaksoissokkoutettu, lumekontrolloitu, seuranta
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881111420188
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537171/


The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders. (Vollenweider FX, Kometer M, 2010)
Julkaisu:Nature Reviews. Neuroscience.
Tiivistelmä: After a pause of nearly 40 years in research into the effects of psychedelic drugs, recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of psychedelics, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin and ketamine have led to renewed interest in the clinical potential of psychedelics in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Recent behavioural and neuroimaging data show that psychedelics modulate neural circuits that have been implicated in mood and affective disorders, and can reduce the clinical symptoms of these disorders. These findings raise the possibility that research into psychedelics might identify novel therapeutic mechanisms and approaches that are based on glutamate-driven neuroplasticity.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1038/nrn2884
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrn2884


Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. (Johnson M, Richards W, Griffiths R, 2008)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks.

Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action ('bad trip'), which could lead to potentially dangerous behaviour such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens.

Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow-up contact.

Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science.
Yhdiste:Psykedeelit yleisesti, LSD, psilosybiini
Aihe:Haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus, asiantuntijalausunto
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881108093587
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881108093587


The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. (Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A, 2008)
Julkaisu:CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Tiivistelmä: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so-called "experimental psychosis" by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures ("psycholytic" and "psychedelic" therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and better study oversight, scientific interest in LSD has resumed for brain research and experimental treatments.

Due to the lack of any comprehensive review since the 1950s and the widely dispersed experimental literature, the present review focuses on all aspects of the pharmacology and psychopharmacology of LSD. A thorough search of the experimental literature regarding the pharmacology of LSD was performed and the extracted results are given in this review. (Psycho-) pharmacological research on LSD was extensive and produced nearly 10,000 scientific papers.

The pharmacology of LSD is complex and its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. LSD is physiologically well tolerated and psychological reactions can be controlled in a medically supervised setting, but complications may easily result from uncontrolled use by layman. Actually there is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill.
Yhdiste:LSD
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008....


Flashback to the 1960s: LSD in the treatment of autism (Sigafoos J, Green VA, Edrisinha C, Lancioni GE, 2007)
Julkaisu:Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Tiivistelmä: Between 1959 and 1974, several groups of researchers issued reports on the use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of children with autism. This paper reviews that literature to consider how the authors justified these studies, as well as their methods, results, and conclusions. The justification for using LSD was often based on the default logic that other treatment efforts had failed. Several positive outcomes were reported with the use of LSD, but most of these studies lacked proper experimental controls and presented largely narrative/descriptive data. Today there is renewed interest in the use of psychedelic drugs for therapeutic purposes. While this resurgence of research has not yet included children with autism, this review of the LSD studies from the 1960s and 1970s offers important lessons for future efforts to evaluate new or controversial treatments for children with autism.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Autismi
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:-
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608329


A review of the acute subjective effects of MDMA/ecstasy. (Baylen CA, Rosenberg H, 2006)
Julkaisu:Addiction
Tiivistelmä: AIM:
Although several relatively recent reviews have summarized the neuropsychiatric effects associated with chronic ecstasy use, there is no published comprehensive review of studies on the acute subjective effects (ASEs) of MDMA/ecstasy.

DESIGN:
The present study reviewed the prevalence, intensity and duration of ASEs collected from 24 studies that provided frequency data on the prevalence of self-reported ecstasy effects and/or provided data on the intensity of ecstasy effects.

FINDINGS:
Although hundreds of ASEs have been reported following MDMA consumption, we identified a subset of effects reported repeatedly by meaningful proportions and large numbers of participants across multiple investigations, most of which were either emotional (e.g. anxiety, depression, closeness, fear, euphoria, calmness) or somatic (e.g. nausea/vomiting, bruxism, muscle aches/headache, sweating, numbness, body temperature changes, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, increased energy). Only one sexual ASE (sexual arousal/increased sensual awareness), one cognitive ASE (confused thought), one sensory-perceptual ASE (visual effects/changes in visual perception), one sleep-related ASE (sleeplessness) and one appetite-related ASE (decreased appetite) were reported across five or more investigations. Three factors-number of hours between ingestion and assessment, dose level, and gender-have been associated with the acute subjective experience of MDMA/ecstasy.

CONCLUSIONS:
This review provides useful information for clinicians and researchers who want to understand the desirable and undesirable ASEs that may motivate and restrain ecstasy use, for public health advocates who seek to reduce biomedical harms (e.g. fainting, dehydration, shortness of breath, bruxism) associated with recreational use of MDMA/ecstasy, and for educators who wish to design credible prevention messages that neither underestimate nor exaggerate users' experiences of this drug.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, päihdekäyttö
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01423.x
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006....


Human pharmacology of MDMA: pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and disposition. (de la Torre R, Farré M, Roset PN, Pizarro N, Abanades S, Se.., 2004)
Julkaisu:Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Tiivistelmä: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) is a widely misused psychostimulant drug abused among large segments of the young population. Pharmacologically it displays effects related to amphetamine-type drugs and a set of distinctive effects (closeness to others, facilitation to interpersonal relationship, and empathy) that have been named by some authors "entactogen" properties. MDMA is a potent releaser and/or reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). These actions result from the interaction of MDMA with the membrane transporters involved in neurotransmitter reuptake and vesicular storage systems.

The most frequent effects after MDMA/ecstasy administration are euphoria, well-being, happiness, stimulation, increased energy, extroversion, feeling close to others, increased empathy, increased sociability, enhanced mood, mild perceptual disturbances, changed perception of colors and sounds, somatic symptoms related to its cardiovascular and autonomic effects (blood pressure and heart rate increase, mydriasis), and moderate derealization but not hallucinations. Acute toxic effects are related to its pharmacologic actions. The serotonin syndrome (increased muscle rigidity, hyperreflexia, and hyperthermia), among others, is characteristic of acute toxicity episodes.

MDMA metabolism is rather complex and includes 2 main metabolic pathways: (1) O-demethylenation followed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-catalyzed methylation and/or glucuronide/sulfate conjugation; and (2) N-dealkylation, deamination, and oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid derivatives conjugated with glycine. The fact that the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6 partially regulates the O-demethylenation pathway prompted some expectations that subjects displaying the poor metabolizer phenotype may be at higher risk of acute toxicity episodes. In this metabolic pathway a mechanism-based inhibition of the enzyme operates because the formation of an enzyme-metabolite complex that renders all subjects, independently of genotype, phenotypically poor metabolizers after the administration of 2 consecutive doses. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics on acute toxicity is limited. One of the interesting features of MDMA metabolism is its potential involvement in the development of mid- to long-term neurotoxic effects as a result of progressive neurodegeneration of the serotonergic neurotransmission system.
Yhdiste:MDMA
Aihe:Yleiset vaikutukset, farmakologia
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:-
URL: https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=15228154


The pharmacology of psilocybin. (Passie T, Seifert J, Schneider U, Emrich HM, 2002)
Julkaisu:Addiction Biology
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:yleiset vaikutukset
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: kirjallisuuskatsaus, psilosybiini
DOI:10.1080/1355621021000005937
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14578010


Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically (Gable RS, 1993)
Julkaisu:The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Tiivistelmä: A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances.

Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.
Yhdiste:päihteet yleisesti
Aihe:haitta-arvio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: haitallisuusarvio, päihteet, psilosybiini
DOI:-
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8213692