Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tulokset kategoriasta aihe hakusanalla addiktio. Takaisin


Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation. (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Griffiths RR, 2017)
Julkaisu:The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Tiivistelmä: BACKGROUND:
A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone.

OBJECTIVES:
To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration.

METHODS:
The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin.

RESULTS:
All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives.

CONCLUSION:
These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:Seurantatutkimus tutkimuksesta Johnson ym. 2014
Tagit:
DOI:10.3109/00952990.2016.1170135
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5641975/


An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated with naturalistic psychedelic use. (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Johnson PS, Griffiths RR, 2017)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence.

This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience. Of the 358 participants, 38% reported continuous smoking cessation after psychedelic use (quitters).

Among quitters, 74% reported >2 years' abstinence. Of the 358 participants, 28% reported a persisting reduction in smoking (reducers), from a mode of 300 cigarettes/month before, to a mode of 1 cigarette/month after the experience. Among reducers, 62% reported >2 years of reduced smoking. Finally, 34% of the 358 participants (relapsers) reported a temporary smoking reduction before returning to baseline smoking levels, with a mode time range to relapse of 3-6 months.

Relapsers rated their psychedelic experience significantly lower in personal meaning and spiritual significance than both other groups. Participants across all groups reported less severe affective withdrawal symptoms (e.g. depression, craving) after psychedelic use compared with previous quit attempts, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for psychedelic-associated smoking cessation/reduction.

Changes in life priorities/values were endorsed as the most important psychological factor associated with smoking cessation/reduction. Results suggest psychedelics may hold promise in treating tobacco addiction as potentially mediated by spiritual experience, changed priorities/values, and improved emotional regulation.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Kyselytutkimus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881116684335
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881116684335


Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. (Bogenschutz MP, Johnson MW, 2016)
Julkaisu:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Tiivistelmä: Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions.

In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD.

Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects.

Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.
Yhdiste:LSD
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit: alkoholismi, LSD
DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.03.002
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S02785846150005...


Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects of ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a systematic review of clinical trials published in the last 25 years. (Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Riba J, Zuardi AW, Hal.., 2016)
Julkaisu:Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: To date, pharmacological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and for drug dependence show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients suffering severe and persistent symptoms. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties.

Thus, we conducted a systematic review of clinical trials published from 1990 until 2015, assessing these therapeutic properties. Electronic searches were performed using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Only clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Of these, 151 studies were identified, of which six met the established criteria.

Reviewed studies suggest beneficial effects for treatment-resistant depression, anxiety and depression associated with life-threatening diseases, and tobacco and alcohol dependence. All drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, ayahuasca, psilocybin and LSD may be useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of drug dependence, and anxiety and mood disorders, especially in treatment-resistant patients. These drugs may also be useful pharmacological tools to understand psychiatric disorders and to develop new therapeutic agents.

However, all studies reviewed had small sample sizes, and half of them were open-label, proof-of-concept studies. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with more patients are needed to replicate these preliminary findings.
Yhdiste:LSD, psilosybiini, ayahuasca
Aihe:Masennus, addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/2045125316638008
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910400/


Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study (Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Barbosa .., 2015)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Several lines of evidence suggest that classic (5HT2A agonist) hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects in alcohol and drug addiction. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of psilocybin in various populations, there have been no studies on the efficacy of psilocybin for alcohol dependence.

We conducted a single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data. Ten volunteers with DSM-IV alcohol dependence received orally administered psilocybin in one or two supervised sessions in addition to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and therapy sessions devoted to preparation for and debriefing from the psilocybin sessions.

Participants’ responses to psilocybin were qualitatively similar to those described in other populations. Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p < 0.05). Gains were largely maintained at follow-up to 36 weeks. The intensity of effects in the first psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5–8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5.

There were no significant treatment-related adverse events. These preliminary findings provide a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:10
Muuta:
Tagit: alkoholi, pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus
DOI:10.1177/0269881114565144
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114565144


Pilot Study of the 5-HT2AR Agonist Psilocybin in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction (Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Cosimano MP, Griffiths RR, 2014)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Tiivistelmä: Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted.

To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol.

Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake.

Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically <35%).

Although the open-label design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.
Yhdiste:psilosybiini
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:
Tagit: pilotti, psilosybiini, riippuvuus, tupakka
DOI:10.1177/0269881114548296
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114548296


Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. (Garcia-Romeu A, Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, 2014)
Julkaisu:Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Tiivistelmä: Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation.

Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Participants who were abstinent at 6 months (n=12) were compared to participants still smoking at 6 months (n=3) on measures of subjective effects of psilocybin. Abstainers scored significantly higher on a measure of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience. No significant differences in general intensity of drug effects were found between groups, suggesting that mystical-type subjective effects, rather than overall intensity of drug effects, were responsible for smoking cessation. Nine of 15 participants (60%) met criteria for "complete" mystical experience. Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions.

These results suggest a mediating role of mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment.
Yhdiste:Psilosybiini
Aihe:Addiktio
Menetelmät:Open label, seuranta
Otoskoko:15
Muuta:Jatkotutkimus tutkimuksesta Johnson ym. 2014
Tagit:
DOI:-
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342293/


Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Krebs TS, Johansen PØ, 2012)
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiivistelmä: Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants.

There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.
Yhdiste:LSD
Aihe:addiktio
Menetelmät:Kirjallisuuskatsaus
Otoskoko:0
Muuta:
Tagit:
DOI:10.1177/0269881112439253
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0048020/