Tieteelliset julkaisut

Tälle sivulle on valikoitu joitakin olennaisiksi katsomiamme, psykedeelejä hyödyntäviä tai muuten käsitteleviä tieteellisiä julkaisuja.



Aihepiirin tiimoilta on julkaistu tuhansia artikkeleita. Pyrimme kokoamaan tietokantaamme sellaisia tieteellisiä julkaisuja, jotka katsomme aihepiirin kannalta erityisen merkittäviksi. Artikkeleita voi selata joko artikkelissa käytetyn yhdisteen mukaan tai käyttöindikaation mukaan.


Tietokantaa on vasta aloitettu työstämään, ja tarkoituksenamme on kartuttaa sitä lähiaikoina aktiivisesti. Myöhemmin tarkoituksena on kirjoittaa listatuista artikkeleista myös suomenkieliset tiivistelmät. Sivulta löytyy myös linkki, jonka kautta uusia artikkeleita on mahdollista ehdottaa lisättäväksi tietokantaamme.


Laajempia luetteloita aihepiirin julkaisuista on saatavilla mm. MAPSin ja OPEN Foundationin sivuilta. Lisäksi esimerkiksi PubMedistä voi tehdä hakuja relevanteilla hakusanoilla.


Tietokannan hakukone



Selaa artikkeleita yhdisteen mukaan:
[ LSD ] [ MDMA ] [ psilosybiini ]


Selaa artikkeleita käyttöindikaation mukaan:
[ addiktio ] [ Kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus ] [ masennus ]

Ehdota artikkelia lisättäväksi tietokantaamme!



Tietokannasta löytyvät artikkelit lisäämisjärjestyksessä
(klikkaa laajentaaksesi):


The safety and efficacy of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine- assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study (Mithoefer, M.C., Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, A. T., Jerome, L..., 2011)
Tiivistelmä: Case reports indicate that psychiatrists administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as a catalyst to psychotherapy before recreational use of MDMA as ‘Ecstasy’ resulted in its criminalization in 1985. Over two decades later, this study is the first completed clinical trial evaluating MDMA as a therapeutic adjunct. Twenty patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder, refractory to both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, were randomly assigned to psychotherapy with concomitant active drug (n = 12) or inactive placebo (n = 8) administered during two 8-h experimental psychotherapy sessions. Both groups received preparatory and follow-up non-drug psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, administered at baseline, 4 days after each experimental session, and 2 months after the second session. Neurocognitive testing, blood pressure, and temperature monitoring were performed. After 2-month follow-up, placebo subjects were offered the option to re-enroll in the experimental procedure with open-label MDMA. Decrease in Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores from baseline was significantly greater for the group that received MDMA than for the placebo group at all three time points after baseline. The rate of clinical response was 10/12 (83%) in the active treatment group versus 2/8 (25%) in the placebo group. There were no drug-related serious adverse events, adverse neurocognitive effects or clinically significant blood pressure increases. MDMA-assisted psychotherapy can be administered to posttraumatic stress disorder patients without evidence of harm, and it may be useful in patients refractory to other treatments.
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Metodologia:kaksoissokko, placebo, seuranta, satunnaistettu
Muuta:Sokkoistuksen voidaan todeta epäonnistuneen, sillä potilaat arvasivat ryhmänsä oikein 95 % tapauksista ja terapeutit aina.
URL: -

Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: a prospective long-term follow-up study (Mithoefer, M.C., Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, A. T., Jerome, L..., 2013)
Tiivistelmä: We report follow-up data evaluating the long-term outcomes for the first completed trial of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Mithoefer et al., 2011). All of the 19 subjects who received MDMA-assisted treatment in the original trial participated in the long-term follow-up (LTFU), with 16 out of 19 completing all of the long-term outcome measures, which were administered from 17 to 74 months after the original study's final MDMA session (mean = 45.4; SD = 17.3). Our primary outcome measure used was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Secondary outcome measures were the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Neuroticism Extroversion Oppenness Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) Personality Inventory. We also collected a long-term follow-up questionnaire. Results for the 16 CAPS completers showed there were no statistical differences between mean CAPS score at LTFU (mean = 23.7; SD = 22.8) (t (matched) = 0.1; df = 15, p = 0.91) and the mean CAPS score previously obtained at Study Exit (mean = 24.6, SD = 18.6). On average, subjects maintained statistically and clinically-significant gains in symptom relief, although two of these subjects did relapse. It was promising that we found the majority of these subjects with previously severe PTSD who were unresponsive to existing treatments had symptomatic relief provided by MDMA-assisted psychotherapy that persisted over time, with no subjects reporting harm from participation in the study.
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Muuta:Seurantatutkimus tutkimuksesta Mithoefer ym. (2011)
URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233746130_Durability_of_...

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. (Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Carducci, M. A., Umbricht,.., 2016)
Tiivistelmä: Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study. High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes.
Indikaatio:kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Metodologia:cross-over, kaksoissokko, placebo, seuranta
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0269881116675513
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini

Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study (Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes, A. A., Pommy, J. A., Wilcox,.., 2015)
Tiivistelmä: Several lines of evidence suggest that classic (5HT2A agonist) hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects in alcohol and drug addiction. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of psilocybin in various populations, there have been no studies on the efficacy of psilocybin for alcohol dependence. We conducted a single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data. Ten volunteers with DSM-IV alcohol dependence received orally administered psilocybin in one or two supervised sessions in addition to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and therapy sessions devoted to preparation for and debriefing from the psilocybin sessions. Participants’ responses to psilocybin were qualitatively similar to those described in other populations. Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p < 0.05). Gains were largely maintained at follow-up to 36 weeks. The intensity of effects in the first psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5–8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events. These preliminary findings provide a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms.
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Metodologia:open label, pilotti, seuranta
Muuta:0,3 mg/kg ja 0,4 mg/kg, 2 sessiota
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114565144
Tagit: alkoholi, psilosybiini, riippuvuus

Pilot Study of the 5-HT2AR Agonist Psilocybin in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction (Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., Cosimano, M. P., & Griffit.., 2014)
Tiivistelmä: Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted. To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol. Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake. Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically <35%). Although the open-label design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmachology
Metodologia:open label, pilotti
Muuta:20 mg/kg ja 30 mg/kg, 3 sessiota
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881114548296
Tagit: psilosybiini, riippuvuus, tupakka

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study (Carhart-Harris, R. L., Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M.., 2016)
Tiivistelmä: Background

Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression.


In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797.


Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30–60 min after dosing, peaked 2–3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0–1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1 week (mean QIDS difference −11·8, 95% CI −9·15 to −14·35, p=0·002, Hedges' g=3·1) and 3 months (−9·2, 95% CI −5·69 to −12·71, p=0·003, Hedges' g=2) after high-dose treatment. Marked and sustained improvements in anxiety and anhedonia were also noted.


This study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression and motivates further trials, with more rigorous designs, to better examine the therapeutic potential of this approach.


Medical Research Council.
Julkaisu:The Lancet Psychiatry
Metodologia: open label, pilotti, seuranta
Muuta:suullinen 10 mg ja 25 mg, 2 sessiota
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221503661630065...
Tagit: masennus, psilosybiini

A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)- assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). (Oehen, P., Traber, R., Widmer, V., & Schnyder, U., 2013)
Tiivistelmä: Psychiatrists and psychotherapists in the US (1970s to 1985) and Switzerland (1988–1993) used MDMA legally as a prescription drug, to enhance the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Early reports suggest that it is useful in treating trauma-related disorders. Recently, the first completed pilot study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD yielded encouraging results. Designed to test the safety and efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant PTSD; our randomized, double-blind, active-placebo controlled trial enrolled 12 patients for treatment with either low-dose (25 mg, plus 12.5 mg supplemental dose) or full-dose MDMA (125 mg, plus 62.5 mg supplemental dose). MDMA was administered during three experimental sessions, interspersed with weekly non-drug-based psychotherapy sessions. Outcome measures used were the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Patients were assessed at baseline, three weeks after the second and third MDMA session (end of treatment), and at the 2-month and 1-year follow-ups.

We found that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy can be safely administered in a clinical setting. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. We did not see statistically significant reductions in CAPS scores (p = 0.066), although there was clinically and statistically significant self-reported (PDS) improvement (p = 0.014). CAPS scores improved further at the 1-year follow-up. In addition, three MDMA sessions were more effective than two (p = 0.016).
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Metodologia:kaksoissokko, placebo, satunnaistettu, seuranta
Muuta:125 mg + 62,5 mg (tai aktiivinen placebo 25 mg + 12,5 mg)
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881112464827

Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects (Vizeli, P. & Liechti, M. E., 2017)
Tiivistelmä: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is being investigated in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The present study characterized the safety pharmacology of single-dose administrations of MDMA (75 or 125 mg) using data from nine double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies performed in the same laboratory in a total of 166 healthy subjects. The duration of the subjective effects was 4.2 ± 1.3 h (range: 1.4–8.2 h). The 125 mg dose of MDMA produced greater ‘good drug effect’ ratings than 75 mg. MDMA produced moderate and transient ‘bad drug effect’ ratings, which were greater in women than in men. MDMA increased systolic blood pressure to >160 mmHg, heart rate >100 beats/min, and body temperature >38°C in 33%, 29% and 19% of the subjects, respectively. These proportions of subjects with hypertension (>160 mmHg), tachycardia, and body temperature >38°C were all significantly greater after 125 mg MDMA compared with the 75 mg dose. Acute and subacute adverse effects of MDMA as assessed by the List of Complaints were dose-dependent and more frequent in females. MDMA did not affect liver or kidney function at EOS 29 ± 22 days after use. No serious adverse events occurred. In conclusion, MDMA produced predominantly acute positive subjective drug effects. Bad subjective drug effects and other adverse effects were significantly more common in women. MDMA administration was overall safe in physically and psychiatrically healthy subjects and in a medical setting. However, the risks of MDMA are likely higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and remain to be investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders.
Indikaatio:terveet koehenkilöt, turvallisuus
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881117691569
Tagit: MDMA, turvallisuus

Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging (Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Suresh Muthukumaraswamy, Leor Rosem.., 2016)
Tiivistelmä: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.
Indikaatio:terveet koehenkilöt
Julkaisu:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Metodologia:aivokuvantaminen, fMRI, MEG
URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/113/17/4853.full
Tagit: aivot, default mode network, LSD, tietoisuus

Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer (Grob C. S., Danforth A.L., Chopra G.S., Hagerty M., McKay C..., 2011)
Tiivistelmä: Tarkoitus: Tässä tutkimuksessa arvioidaan hallusinogeenien kliinistä soveltuvuutta ahdistukseen, joka on syntynyt reaktiona pitkälle edenneeseen syöpään.

Koeasetelma: Psilosybiinin (0.2 mg/kg) tehoa ja turvallisuutta tutkittiin plasebokontrolloidulla kaksoissokko asetelmalla, jossa koehenkilöt toimivat omana kontrollinaan.

Koehenkilöt: 12 pitkälle edennyttä syöpää sairastavaa aikuista, joilla on myös kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta.

Käytetyt mittarit: Koehenkilöiden kehon lämpötilaa ja verenapainetta mitattiin kokeen aikana ja sitä ennen. Seurantamittaukset sisälsivät BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), POMS (Profile of Mood States) ja STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) asteikot, joihin koehenkilöt vastasivat sokkoutuksen purkamisen jälkeen kuuden kuukauden ajan.

Tulokset: Fysiologisten vasteiden ja psykologisten mittausten perusteella arvioituna hoito vaikutti turvalliselta. Psilosybiini ei aiheuttanut koehenkilöille kliinisesti merkittävää haittaa. Koehenkilöiden ahdistustaipumuksessa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää laskua 1 ja 3 kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. BDI:llä mitattuna koehenkilöiden mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevää kohenemista kuusi kuukautta hoidon jälkeen. Myös POMS mittauksissa havaittiin koehenkilöiden mielialan kohenemista, joka ei kuitenkaan ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää.

Johtopäätökset: Tämä tutkimus osoitti psilosybiinin annostelun olevan turvallista ja soveltuvaa pitkälle edenneestä syövästä sairastuneilla potilailla, joilla on kuolemaan liittyvää ahdistusta. Osa aineistosta viittasi positiivisiin muutoksiin koehenkilöiden mielialassa ja ahdistuneisuudessa. Tulosten valossa lisätutkimus vaikuttaa perustellulta tällä pitkään sivuutetulla alalla.
Indikaatio:Kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus
Julkaisu:Archives of General Psychiatry
URL: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/210962
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial (Ross, S., Bossis, A., Guss, J., Agin-Liebes G., Malone, T., .., 2016)
Tiivistelmä: Tausta: Ahdistus ja masennusoireilu ovat yleisiä potilailla, joilla on pitkälle edennyt syöpäsairaus. Psykiatrinen oireilu on yhteydessä huonompaan hoidon ennusteeseen. Aiemmat tutkimustulokset viittaavat psilosybiinin soveltuvan syöpäsairauteen liittyvän ahdistuksen ja masennuksen hoitoon.

Metodit: Tässä satunnaistetussa plasebokontrolloidussa ristikkäistutkimuksessa 29 syöpää sairastavaa potilasta, joilla oli sairauteensa liittyvää ahdistusta ja masennusta saivat satunnaistetusti psykoterapian yhteydessä yhden annoksen joko psilosybiiniä (0.3mg/kg) tai niasiinia. Hoidon vaikuttavuutta arvioitiin ahdistus- ja masennusmittauksilla ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä 7 viikkoa hoidon jälkeen.

Tulokset: Koehenkilöiden ahdistuneisuudessa ja mielialassa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitseviä positiivisia muutoksia psilosybiinin jälkeen ennen koe- ja kontrolliryhmien yhdistämistä. Lisäksi syöpään liittyvässä toivottomuudessa ja demoralisaatiossa havaittiin laskua. Myös koehenkilöiden henkinen hyvinvointi ja elämänlaatu kohenivat. Kuuden kuukauden seurannassa psilosybiinin ahdistusta ja masentuneisuutta lieventävät vaikutukset säilyivät (60-80 % koehenkilöistä havaittiin kliinisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta ahdistukseen ja masentuneisuuteen). Seurannassa psilosybiini oli yhteydessä eksistentiaalisen ahdingon helpottumiseen, kohonneeseen elämänlaatuun ja muuntuneeseen asenteeseen kuolemaa kohtaan. Psilosybiinin terapeuttiset vaikutukset välittyivät sen tuottaman mystisen kokemuksen kautta.

Johtopäätökset: Kerta-annoksinen psilosybiiniavusteinen psykoterapia tuotti nopeita ja pysyviä muutoksia syöpää sairastavien potilaiden sairauteen liittyvässä masentuneisuudessa ja ahdistuneisuudessa.
Indikaatio:Kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus
Julkaisu:Journal of Psychopharmacology
Metodologia:kaksoissokko, plasebo, cross-over
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881116675512
Tagit: kuolemaan liittyvä ahdistus, masennus, psilosybiini